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压力容器 化工容器

Pressure Vessel, Chemical Vessel

 

压力容器应满足下列各项结构强度的要求:一、强度 压力容器的所有零部件尺寸都应按有关规定计算决定,以保证有足够的强度。二、刚度 即构件在外力作用下保持原来形状的能力。若刚度不足就回出现失稳现象,因此有些构件的尺寸往往决定于刚度。三、耐久性 一般指压力容器要求使用的年限。四、密封性 压力容器内的物料很多都是易燃、易爆或有毒的物质,如果泄漏出来,不仅造成物料的浪费,更重要的是会使操作人员中毒,甚至引起爆炸。因此压力容器的密封<性能也是关系到能否保证安全运行的一个十分重要的问题。

化学工业中的绝大多数生产过程是在化工设备内进行的。在这些设备中,有的用来储存物料,有的进行物理过程。尽管这些设备尺寸大小不一,形状结构各不相同,内部结构更是多种多样,但是它们都有一个外壳,这个外壳就称之为容器。容器一般是由筒体、封头及其它零部件(如法兰、支座、接管、人孔、手孔、视镜、液面计)组成的。根据不同的用途、构造材料、制造方法、形状、受力情况、装配方式、安装位置、器壁厚薄而有各种不同的分类方法。其主要的分类有下面几种: 根据形状,可将容器分为圆筒形、球形、矩形容器; 根据承压情况,可将容器分为受内压与外压容器; 根据容器壁厚,可将容器分为薄壁容器与厚壁容器;根据材料,可将容器分为钢制、铸铁制、铝制、石墨制、塑料制容器等

Pressure Vessel should satisfy the following structural strength

1. Strength  

All the dimensions of pressure vessel should be calculated according to relative standard, to be sure that the strength is enough.

2. Rigidity   

The vessel can keep the shape not distortion under outside force; there will be instability if the rigidity is not enough, so the dimension is decided by rigidity.

3. Durability

It mains that the requirement of the service life of pressure vessel.

4. Leak tightness

The material contains in pressure vessel is either inflammable, volatile, and toxic material, if there is a leakage, not just waste, the serious is the poisoning of operator, or explode. Leak tightness is very import specifications for the pressure vessel, which enable the save operation.

Most of process of chemical industry are going inside the chemical equipment, among which, some are for storage, some for physic process, they are different in side, shape and structure, diversity of inner structure, too. But there is shell, which we called Vessel. Vessel is consists of body, end capped and other parts (i.e. flange, bracket, connecting pipe, manhole, hand hole, sight glass and liquid level gauge ). It has different classifications by usage, material, and manufacturing way, shape, loading force, assembly, installation and thickness of wall. Normally, it has Cylinder, ball, rectangle vessel by shape, inner pressure, and out pressure vessel by force loaded, and thin-wall vessel and thick-wall vessel by wall thickness, and steel vessel, cast iron vessel, aluminum vessel, graphite vessel and plastic vessel by material.

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